Social Media

Twitter Privacy Policy

We believe you should always know what data we collect from you and how we use it,

and that you should have meaningful control over both. We want to empower you to

make the best decisions about the information that you share with us. That’s the

purpose of this Privacy Policy. You should read this policy in full, but here are a few

key things we hope you take away from it:

● Twitter is public and Tweets are immediately viewable and searchable by

anyone around the world. We give you non-public ways to communicate on

Twitter too, through protected Tweets and Direct Messages. You can also use

Twitter under a pseudonym if you prefer not to use your name.

● When you use Twitter, even if you’re just looking at Tweets, we receive some

personal information from you like the type of device you’re using and your IP

address. You can choose to share additional information with us like your email

address, phone number, address book contacts, and a public profile. We use

this information for things like keeping your account secure and showing you

more relevant Tweets, people to follow, events, and ads.

● We give you control through your settings to limit the data we collect from you

and how we use it, and to control things like account security, marketing

preferences, apps that can access your account, and address book contacts

you’ve uploaded to Twitter. You can also always download the information you

have shared on Twitter.

● In addition to information you share with us, we use your Tweets, content you’ve

read, Liked, or Retweeted, and other information to determine what topics

you’re interested in, your age, the languages you speak, and other signals to

show you more relevant content. We give you transparency into that

information, and you can modify or correct it at any time.

● If you have questions about this policy, how we collect or process your personal

data, or anything else related to our privacy practices, we want to hear from you.

You can contact us at any time.

Information You Share With Us

We require certain information to provide our services to you. For example, you must

have an account in order to upload or share content on Twitter. When you choose to

share the information below with us, we collect and use it to operate our services.

Basic Account Information: You don’t have to create an account to use some of our

service features, such as searching and viewing public Twitter profiles or watching a

broadcast on Periscope’s website. If you do choose to create an account, you must

provide us with some personal data so that we can provide our services to you. On

Twitter this includes a display name (for example, “Twitter Moments”), a username (for

example, @TwitterMoments), a password, and an email address or phone number.

Your display name and username are always public, but you can use either your real

name or a pseudonym. You can also create and manage multiple Twitter accounts, for

example to express different parts of your identity.

Public Information: Most activity on Twitter is public, including your profile

information, your time zone and language, when you created your account, and your

Tweets and certain information about your Tweets like the date, time, and application

and version of Twitter you Tweeted from. You also may choose to publish your location

in your Tweets or your Twitter profile. The lists you create, people you follow and who

follow you, and Tweets you Like or Retweet are also public. Periscope broadcasts you

create, click on, or otherwise engage with, either on Periscope or on Twitter, are public

along with when you took those actions. So are your hearts, comments, the number of

hearts you’ve received, which accounts you are a Superfan of, and whether you

watched a broadcast live or on replay. Any hearts, comments, or other content you

contribute to another account’s broadcast will remain part of that broadcast for as long

as it remains on Periscope. Information posted about you by other people who use our

services may also be public. For example, other people may tag you in a photo (if your

settings allow) or mention you in a Tweet.

You are responsible for your Tweets and other information you provide through our

services, and you should think carefully about what you make public, especially if it is

sensitive information. If you update your public information on Twitter, such as by

deleting a Tweet or deactivating your account, we will reflect your updated content on, Twitter for iOS, and Twitter for Android.

In addition to providing your public information to the world directly on Twitter, we also

use technology like application programming interfaces (APIs) and embeds to make

that information available to websites, apps, and others for their use - for example,

displaying Tweets on a news website or analyzing what people say on Twitter. We

generally make this content available in limited quantities for free and charge licensing

fees for large-scale access. We have standard terms that govern how this data can be

used, and a compliance program to enforce these terms. But these individuals and

companies are not affiliated with Twitter, and their offerings may not reflect updates

you make on Twitter. For more information about how we make public data on Twitter

available to the world, visit

Contact Information and Address Books: We use your contact information, such as

your email address or phone number, to authenticate your account and keep it - and

our services - secure, and to help prevent spam, fraud, and abuse. We also use

contact information to personalize our services, enable certain account features (for

example, for login verification or Twitter via SMS), and to send you information about

our services. If you provide us with your phone number, you agree to receive text

messages from Twitter to that number as your country’s laws allow. Twitter also uses

your contact information to market to you as your country’s laws allow, and to help

others find your account if your settings permit, including through third-party services

and client applications. You can use your settings for email and mobile notifications to

control notifications you receive from Twitter. You can also unsubscribe from a

notification by following the instructions contained within the notification or here.

You can choose to upload and sync your address book on Twitter so that we can help

you find and connect with people you know and help others find and connect with you.

We also use this information to better recommend content to you and others.

You can sign up for Periscope with an account from another service like Twitter,

Google, or Facebook, or connect your Periscope account to these other services. If

you do, we will use information from that service, including your email address, friends,

or contacts list, to recommend other accounts or content to you or to recommend your

account or content to others. You can control whether your Periscope account is

discoverable by email through your Periscope settings.

If you email us, we will keep the content of your message, your email address, and

your contact information to respond to your request.

Direct Messages and Non-Public Communications: We provide certain features that

let you communicate more privately or control who sees your content. For example,

you can use Direct Messages to have non-public conversations on Twitter, protect

your Tweets, or host private broadcasts on Periscope. When you communicate with

others by sending or receiving Direct Messages, we will store and process your

communications and information related to them. This includes link scanning for

malicious content, link shortening to URLs, detection of spam and

prohibited images, and review of reported issues. We also use information about whom

you have communicated with and when (but not the content of those communications)

to better understand the use of our services, to protect the safety and integrity of our

platform, and to show more relevant content. We share the content of your Direct

Messages with the people you’ve sent them to; we do not use them to serve you ads.

Note that if you interact in a way that would ordinarily be public with Twitter content

shared with you via Direct Message, for instance by liking a Tweet, those interactions

will be public. When you use features like Direct Messages to communicate, remember

that recipients have their own copy of your communications on Twitter - even if you

delete your copy of those messages from your account - which they may duplicate,

store, or re-share.

Payment Information: You may provide us with payment information, including your

credit or debit card number, card expiration date, CVV code, and billing address, in

order to purchase advertising or other offerings provided as part of our services.

How You Control the Information You Share with Us:

Your Privacy and safety settings let you decide:

● Whether your Tweets are publicly available on Twitter

● Whether others can tag you in a photo

● Whether you will be able to receive Direct Messages from anyone on

Twitter or just your followers

● Whether others can find you based on your email or phone number

● Whether you upload your address book to Twitter for storage and use

● When and where you may see sensitive content on Twitter

● Whether you want to block or mute other Twitter accounts

Additional Information We Receive About You

We receive certain information when you use our services or other websites or mobile

applications that include our content, and from third parties including advertisers. Like

the information you share with us, we use the data below to operate our services.

Location Information: We require information about your signup and current location,

which we get from signals such as your IP address or device settings, to securely and

reliably set up and maintain your account and to provide our services to you.

Subject to your settings, we may collect, use, and store additional information about

your location - such as your current precise position or places where you’ve previously

used Twitter - to operate or personalize our services including with more relevant

content like local trends, stories, ads, and suggestions for people to follow. Learn more

about Twitter’s use of location here, and how to set your Twitter location preferences

here. Learn more about how to share your location in Periscope broadcasts here.

Links: In order to operate our services, we keep track of how you interact with links

across our services. This includes links in emails we send you and links in Tweets that

appear on other websites or mobile applications.

If you click on an external link or ad on our services, that advertiser or website operator

might figure out that you came from Twitter or Periscope, along with other information

associated with the ad you clicked such as characteristics of the audience it was

intended to reach. They may also collect other personal data from you, such as cookie

identifiers or your IP address.

Cookies: A cookie is a small piece of data that is stored on your computer or mobile

device. Like many websites, we use cookies and similar technologies to collect

additional website usage data and to operate our services. Cookies are not required for

many parts of our services such as searching and looking at public profiles. Although

most web browsers automatically accept cookies, many browsers’ settings can be set

to decline cookies or alert you when a website is attempting to place a cookie on your

computer. However, some of our services may not function properly if you disable

cookies. When your browser or device allows it, we use both session cookies and

persistent cookies to better understand how you interact with our services, to monitor

aggregate usage patterns, and to personalize and otherwise operate our services such

as by providing account security, personalizing the content we show you including ads,

and remembering your language preferences. We do not support the Do Not Track

browser option. You can learn more about how we use cookies and similar

technologies here.

Log Data: We receive information when you view content on or otherwise interact with

our services, which we refer to as “Log Data,” even if you have not created an account.

For example, when you visit our websites, sign into our services, interact with our email

notifications, use your account to authenticate to a third-party service, or visit a thirdparty

service that includes Twitter content, we may receive information about you. This

Log Data includes information such as your IP address, browser type, operating

system, the referring web page, pages visited, location, your mobile carrier, device

information (including device and application IDs), search terms, and cookie

information. We also receive Log Data when you click on, view, or interact with links on

our services, including when you install another application through Twitter. We use

Log Data to operate our services and ensure their secure, reliable, and robust

performance. For example, we use Log Data to protect the security of accounts and to

determine what content is popular on our services. We also use this data to improve

the content we show you, including ads.

We use information you provide to us and data we receive, including Log Data and

data from third parties, to make inferences like what topics you may be interested in,

how old you are, and what languages you speak. This helps us better design our

services for you and personalize the content we show you, including ads.

Twitter for Web Data: When you view our content on third-party websites that

integrate Twitter content such as embedded timelines or Tweet buttons, we may

receive Log Data that includes the web page you visited. We use this information to

better understand the use of our services, to protect the safety and integrity of our

platform, and to show more relevant content, including ads. We do not associate this

web browsing history with your name, email address, phone number, or username, and

we delete, obfuscate, or aggregate it after no longer than 30 days. We do not collect

this data from browsers that we believe to be located in the European Union or EFTA


Advertisers and Other Ad Partners: Advertising revenue allows us to support and

improve our services. We use the information described in this Privacy Policy to help

make our advertising more relevant to you, to measure its effectiveness, and to help

recognize your devices to serve you ads on and off of Twitter. Our ad partners and

affiliates share information with us such as browser cookie IDs, mobile device IDs,

hashed email addresses, demographic or interest data, and content viewed or actions

taken on a website or app. Some of our ad partners, particularly our advertisers, also

enable us to collect similar information directly from their website or app by integrating

our advertising technology.

Twitter adheres to the Digital Advertising Alliance Self-Regulatory Principles for Online

Behavioral Advertising (also referred to as “interest-based advertising”) and respects

the DAA’s consumer choice tool for you to opt out of interest-based advertising at In addition, our ads policies prohibit advertisers from

targeting ads based on categories that we consider sensitive or are prohibited by law,

such as race, religion, politics, sex life, or health. Learn more about your privacy

options for interest-based ads here and about how ads work on our services here.

If you are an advertiser or a prospective advertiser, we process your personal data to

help offer and provide our advertising services. You can update your data in your

Twitter Ads dashboard or by contacting us directly as described in this Privacy Policy.

Developers: If you access our APIs or developer portal, we process your personal data

to help provide our services. You can update your data by contacting us directly as

described in this Privacy Policy.

Other Third Parties and Affiliates: We may receive information about you from third

parties who are not our ad partners, such as others on Twitter, partners who help us

evaluate the safety and quality of content on our platform, our corporate affiliates, and

other services you link to your Twitter account.

You may choose to connect your Twitter account to accounts on another service, and

that other service may send us information about your account on that service. We use

the information we receive to provide you features like cross-posting or cross-service

authentication, and to operate our services. For integrations that Twitter formally

supports, you may revoke this permission at any time from your application settings;

for other integrations, please visit the other service you have connected to Twitter.

Personalizing Across Your Devices: When you log into Twitter on a browser or

device, we will associate that browser or device with your account for purposes such

as authentication, security, and personalization. Subject to your settings, we may also

associate your account with browsers or devices other than those you use to log into

Twitter (or associate your logged-out device or browser with other browsers or

devices). We do this to operate and personalize our services. For example, if you visit

websites with sports content on your laptop, we may show you sports-related ads on

Twitter for Android.

How You Control Additional Information We Receive:

Your Twitter Personalization and data settings let you decide:

● Whether we show you interest-based ads on and off Twitter

● How we personalize your experience across devices

● Whether we collect and use your precise location

● Whether we personalize your experience based on where you’ve been

● Whether we keep track of the websites where you see Twitter content

You can use Your Twitter data to review:

○ Advertisers who have included you in tailored audiences to serve you ads

○ Demographic and interest data about your account from our ads partners

○ Information that Twitter has inferred about you such as your age range,

gender, languages, and interests

We also provide a version of these tools on Twitter if you don’t have a Twitter account,

or if you’re logged out of your account. This lets you see the data and settings for the

logged out browser or device you are using, separate from any Twitter account that

uses that browser or device. On Periscope, you can control whether we personalize

your experience based on your watch history through your settings.

Information We Share and Disclose

As noted above, Twitter is designed to broadly and instantly disseminate information

you share publicly through our services. In the limited circumstances where we

disclose your private personal data, we do so subject to your control, because it’s

necessary to operate our services, or because it’s required by law.

Sharing You Control: We share or disclose your personal data with your consent or at

your direction, such as when you authorize a third-party web client or application to

access your account or when you direct us to share your feedback with a business. If

you’ve shared information like Direct Messages or protected Tweets with someone

else who accesses Twitter through a third-party service, keep in mind that the

information may be shared with the third-party service.

Subject to your settings, we also provide certain third parties with personal data to help

us offer or operate our services. For example, we share with advertisers the identifiers

of devices that saw their ads, to enable them to measure the effectiveness of our

advertising business. We also share device identifiers, along with the interests or other

characteristics of a device or the person using it, to help partners decide whether to

serve an ad to that device or to enable them to conduct marketing, brand analysis,

interest-based advertising, or similar activities. You can learn more about these

partnerships in our Help Center, and you can control whether Twitter shares your

personal data in this way by using the “Share your data with Twitter’s business partners”

option in your Personalization and Data settings. (This setting does not control sharing

described elsewhere in our Privacy Policy, such as when we share data with our service

providers.) The information we share with these partners does not include your name,

email address, phone number, or Twitter username, but some of these partnerships

allow the information we share to be linked to other personal information if the partner

gets your consent first.

Service Providers: We engage service providers to perform functions and provide

services to us in the United States, Ireland, and other countries. For example, we use a

variety of third-party services to help operate our services, such as hosting our various

blogs and wikis, and to help us understand the use of our services, such as Google

Analytics. We may share your private personal data with such service providers subject

to obligations consistent with this Privacy Policy and any other appropriate

confidentiality and security measures, and on the condition that the third parties use

your private personal data only on our behalf and pursuant to our instructions. We

share your payment information with payment services providers to process payments;

prevent, detect, and investigate fraud or other prohibited activities; facilitate dispute

resolution such as chargebacks or refunds; and for other purposes associated with the

acceptance of credit and debit cards.

Law, Harm, and the Public Interest: Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this

Privacy Policy or controls we may otherwise offer to you, we may preserve, use, or

disclose your personal data if we believe that it is reasonably necessary to comply with

a law, regulation, legal process, or governmental request; to protect the safety of any

person; to protect the safety or integrity of our platform, including to help prevent

spam, abuse, or malicious actors on our services, or to explain why we have removed

content or accounts from our services; to address fraud, security, or technical issues;

or to protect our rights or property or the rights or property of those who use our

services. However, nothing in this Privacy Policy is intended to limit any legal defenses

or objections that you may have to a third party’s, including a government’s, request to

disclose your personal data.

Affiliates and Change of Ownership: In the event that we are involved in a

bankruptcy, merger, acquisition, reorganization, or sale of assets, your personal data

may be sold or transferred as part of that transaction. This Privacy Policy will apply to

your personal data as transferred to the new entity. We may also disclose personal

data about you to our corporate affiliates in order to help operate our services and our

affiliates’ services, including the delivery of ads.

Non-Personal Information: We share or disclose non-personal data, such as

aggregated information like the total number of times people engaged with a Tweet,

the number of people who clicked on a particular link or voted on a poll in a Tweet

(even if only one did), the topics that people are Tweeting about in a particular location,

or reports to advertisers about how many people saw or clicked on their ads.

Managing Your Personal Information with Us

You control the personal data you share with us. You can access or rectify this data at

any time. You can also deactivate your account. We also provide you tools to object,

restrict, or withdraw consent where applicable for the use of data you have provided to

Twitter. And we make the data you shared through our services portable and provide

easy ways for you to contact us.

Accessing or Rectifying Your Personal Data: If you have registered an account on

Twitter, we provide you with tools and account settings to access, correct, delete, or

modify the personal data you provided to us and associated with your account. You

can download certain account information, including your Tweets, by following the

instructions here. On Periscope, you can request correction, deletion, or modification

of your personal data, and download your account information, by following the

instructions here. You can learn more about the interests we have inferred about you in

Your Twitter Data and request access to additional information here.

Deletion: We keep Log Data for a maximum of 18 months. If you follow the

instructions here (or for Periscope here), your account will be deactivated and then

deleted. When deactivated, your Twitter account, including your display name,

username, and public profile, will no longer be viewable on, Twitter for

iOS, and Twitter for Android. For up to 30 days after deactivation it is still possible to

restore your Twitter account if it was accidentally or wrongfully deactivated.

Keep in mind that search engines and other third parties may still retain copies of your

public information, like your profile information and public Tweets, even after you have

deleted the information from our services or deactivated your account. Learn more


Object, Restrict, or Withdraw Consent: When you are logged into your Twitter

account, you can manage your privacy settings and other account features here at any


Portability: Twitter provides you a means to download the information you have

shared through our services by following the steps here. Periscope provides you a

means to download the information you have shared through our services by following

the steps here.

Additional Information or Assistance: Thoughts or questions about this Privacy

Policy? Please let us know by contacting us here or writing to us at the appropriate

address below.

If you live in the United States, the data controller responsible for your personal data is

Twitter, Inc. with an address of:

Twitter, Inc.

Attn: Privacy Policy Inquiry

1355 Market Street, Suite 900

San Francisco, CA 94103

If you live outside the United States, the data controller is Twitter International

Company, with an address of:

Twitter International Company

Attn: Data Protection Officer

One Cumberland Place, Fenian Street

Dublin 2, D02 AX07 IRELAND

If you are located in the European Union or EFTA States, you can confidentially contact

Twitter’s Data Protection Officer here. If you wish to raise a concern about our use of

your information (and without prejudice to any other rights you may have), you have the

right to do so with your local supervisory authority or Twitter International Company’s

lead supervisory authority, the Irish Data Protection Commission. You can find their

contact details here.

Children and Our Services

Our services are not directed to children, and you may not use our services if you are

under the age of 13. You must also be old enough to consent to the processing of your

personal data in your country (in some countries we may allow your parent or guardian

to do so on your behalf). You must be at least 16 years of age to use Periscope.

Our Global Operations and Privacy Shield

To bring you our services, we operate globally. Where the laws of your country allow

you to do so, you authorize us to transfer, store, and use your data in the United

States, Ireland, and any other country where we operate. In some of the countries to

which we transfer personal data, the privacy and data protection laws and rules

regarding when government authorities may access data may vary from those of your

country. Learn more about our global operations and data transfer here.

When we transfer personal data outside of the European Union or EFTA States, we

ensure an adequate level of protection for the rights of data subjects based on the

adequacy of the receiving country’s data protection laws, contractual obligations

placed on the recipient of the data (model clauses may be requested by inquiry as

described below), or EU-US and Swiss-US Privacy Shield principles.

Twitter, Inc. complies with the EU-US and Swiss-US Privacy Shield principles (the

“Principles”) regarding the collection, use, sharing, and retention of personal data from

the European Union and Switzerland, as described in our EU-US Privacy Shield

certification and Swiss-US Privacy Shield certification.

If you have a Privacy Shield-related complaint, please contact us here. As part of our

participation in Privacy Shield, if you have a dispute with us about our adherence to the

Principles, we will seek to resolve it through our internal complaint resolution process,

alternatively through the independent dispute resolution body JAMS, and under certain

conditions, through the Privacy Shield arbitration process.

Privacy Shield participants are subject to the investigatory and enforcement powers of

the US Federal Trade Commission and other authorized statutory bodies. Under

certain circumstances, participants may be liable for the transfer of personal data from

the EU or Switzerland to third parties outside the EU and Switzerland. Learn more

about the EU-US Privacy Shield and Swiss-US Privacy Shield here.

Changes to This Privacy Policy

We may revise this Privacy Policy from time to time. The most current version of the

policy will govern our processing of your personal data and will always be at If we make a change to this policy that, in our sole

discretion, is material, we will notify you via an @Twitter update or email to the email

address associated with your account. By continuing to access or use the Services

after those changes become effective, you agree to be bound by the revised Privacy


Effective: May 25, 2018

Archive of Previous Privacy Policies